Sunday, 21 October 2012

Research - Editing techniques - Ms Begum

Editing – Ms Begum

What is editing and what is the importance of it?
Editing is used to provide coherence and continuity to the film, There are different types of editing techniques used to specific effect which I would talk about in depth. It’s also used for effect by emphasising the action while the attack is taking place. Personally i believe that editing is one of the most influential and important micro-element because it has the potential to directly impact on how the audience feels due to the pacing of the editing. As show in the example, as the intensity of the scene builds up, the speed of the editing also does.


Film trailers are an excellent in connecting with the audience, and giving a general idea of what the film is going to be about. In addition also to advertise the film to the audience that prefers the type of genre the film belongs to. Film trailers consist of a mixture of editing styles, techniques and speed to advertise a film.
Terms learnt in lesson:
Straight cut:
Straight cup refers to when a shot moves into another shot in an edit and it’s done in a way that does not confuse the audience.
Fade to black:
A fade to black edit is when one shot goes/moves into another and there is a black filter in between. At the end of the clip we see a fade to black edit being displayed.
Wipe cut:
A wipe cut is when a shot slides into another, with a distinct type of edge that would form a shape. This clip shows examples of wipe cuts, the first one is shown when the character is in the shower and the wipe cut results in the character being in bed. Then, from he being in bed to getting changed into his clothes.

Dissolve is a transition effect in which an image gradually fades out while another image simultaneously replaces the original image. A specific film in where we can see ‘dissolve’ happening is at the end of psycho. This is where there characters face dissolves into a skeleton figure. 

Reaction shot:
This in a any shot, usually used as a cutaway in which we see the characters reaction to a previous shot.

This is the speed of editing where shots are juxtaposed together in a quick way to cause create excitement. The clip shows various example of montage used in thrillers, for example from '2:16 to 2:18' we can see a montage from the amazing spider man.

 Slow and Fast editing:
Slow editing is when clips are put together in a slower pace and this is to create suspense and prioritise action. Slow editing is used frequent in thriller films to because of the suspense it creates.
In contrast to slow editing, fast editing is when clips are put together in a fast pace. this is usually seen in thriller films at appropriate scenes such as an attack that’s taking place. I think it’s been used to portray the intense action that’s taking place .It causes a chilling response to the audience by the fast and quick editing used.

180 degree rule:
The 180 degree rule refers to a hypothetical line drawn between two or more actors/actresses. The camera doesn't cross the line, because this would cause confusion to the audience, also the shooting would not be at a constant rate. As shown in the example the 180 degree rule is used between a conversation between the three characters.

Shot reverse shot:
This editing technique is usually used during a conversation and it is when one shot quickly follows another. The example from ' Dawn of the dead' implies the use of a shot reverse shot at the time of 2:10 and 2:20 when the male and the female characters are having a conversation.

Jump cut:
This involves a drastic camera movement that is noticeable by the viewer, and the edit almost ‘jumps’ in the clip we see scenes from the thriller movie ' layer cake ' that uses jump cuts which gave me a wider understanding on how jump cuts are used in thrillers.

Analysis of a thriller scene:

The editing technique that is used and stands out in the clip is Dissolve. We see it at the end of the film where the scene finishes with the murderers face dissolving into a skeleton. I could come to an assumption that the reason for this editing technique is to portray that the murderer is either about to die or is not going to be able to murder again, moreover it could have been used to give an idea to the audience as to what happens to the character without using any form of dialogue. This would create a chilling response from the audience because the way the scene dissolves from a man to a skeleton would shock the audience and it would leave question marks in the audience's head wanting to know why has dissolve being used and what would this lead to.
This research into editing has helped me understand how they are used in effect in various aspects in a film and in the production of the film. Such as trailers to attract the target audience, and also the editing types used in the appropriate scenes throughout a film which creates a response from the audience. I've learnt about the editing types that are appropriate to use in a specific scene and also I can put some of the ideas that I've learnt into practice in my own thriller film, such as dissolve and fast editing when the intensity of the scene increases.

Sunday, 14 October 2012

Research - Sound - Ms Begum

Sound – Ms Begum

What is sound?
In reference to films, sound is used to create an understanding to the audience without including a visual concept and to create more meaning about the character and their emotions. Moreover, sound is also used to create a response from the audience. For example if there was a sudden loud noise it would make the audience jump. As shown in the example, sound is important in films because of the huge impact it has in understanding what’s happening in a scene. Such as music that builds tension adds suspense to the scene.

Terms learnt in lesson:
Diegetic sound:
This is a type of sound that’s a part of the film, and that the character him/herself can hear as well as the audience. For example, the telephone ringing at the begining scene of  'scream'

Non diegetic sound:
This is when the sound is not a part of the film and the audience is only aware of it. An example which would be the soundtrack of 'se7en' while the credits are playing at the begining of the film. This gives information that’s specific only to the audience information about the film which the characters aren't able to hear.
On screen sound:
On screen sound is when the audience can see where the sound is coming from, such as in scarface when Al Pacino fires a gun both the characters and the audience can hear.

Off screen sound:
An off screen sound is when we can hear sound, but we are not aware of where the sound is coming from but it’s still relevant to the film. For example, in 'scream'when the victim walks off into the kitchen and hears a phone call made by the killer in antoher room.
Parallel sound:
This is when the sound we hear compliments what we see. For example frightening sounds conveyed by the antagonist followed by fightened images or upsetting moments. The sounds that are expected would occur for the audience in a parallel sound. In the example we can see Bond walking slowly towards the victim and the parrelel sound would be the clicking of the gun.
Contrapuntal sound:
Contrapuntal sound is the opposite of parallel sound. It’s when the sound does not match with what’s expected of what we are viewing. The most famous thriller film example has to be ‘Jaws’ when there is scene of a happy holiday on a beach we hear the ‘dur dur’ sound which implies the shark approaching. This would cause the audience in expecting something bad to happen despite the positive and happy images

This research of sound helped me be acknowledgeable about the different types of sounds that a film has and the meanings of it. These sounds are used effectivelly to create meaning and response by the audience recieving what they expect such as a parrelel sound or an on screen sound. However, at times the sounds are used in effect by not relating to the images the audience see's such as contrupuntal sounds or off screen sounds. I also learnt the sounds that are specific for the thriller genre which would be helpful for me to use on my own thriller trailer. One of the different types of sound techniques I could consider using could be the contrapuntal sound technique because of the twist it could add to my thriller trailer. It also keeps the audience at the edge of their seats and results in the audience to expect the unexpected. 

Tuesday, 9 October 2012

Research - Cinematography - Ms Begum


What is cinematography:
Cinematography is the art or technique of motion-picture photography. Cinematography also looks at the way a shot is framed, the angle it’s been taken at and the movement of the camera. All these factors give the audience different representations of a character and allows the audience to respond in the different ways depending of the cinematography techniques used. Cinematography is a very important tool in the film making process, this is because the different types of cinematography techniques used all have different meanings and are used for a specific reason, which gets the audience thinking.
All learnt terms:
Camera angles:
Low angle - A low angled shot from a camera positioned low from the vertical axis, anywhere below the eye line looking up. This camera angle could be used on a character that has strength and power.

High angle - A high angle shot is when the camera is located above the eye line this shows us looking down on the character. This camera angle could be used to portray that a character is vulnerable and powerless.

Shot sizes:
Extreme close up (ECU)

An extreme close up shot aims to give a clear illustration of a specific object/person and also shows something in detail and gives emphasis on it. Moreover very small objects or areas or small portions of large objects can be photographed with an extreme close up shot, so their images are magnified on the screen. In the example, only the eye of the character is concentrated on and the focus is only with one aspect of the characters body.

Close up (CU)

In a close up shot a certain feature or part of the subject takes up most of the frame. A close up of a person usually means a close up of their face. Close ups are useful in showing detail, and emphasises on the person’s emotion. We can clearly see the anger and frustration portrayed by the character because of the close up shot being used.

Medium close up (MCU)

A medium close up shot mainly focuses on chest level and above and concentrates on the body posture of a person and the body language that they convey to the viewer. As shown in the example, there is minimal background detail, and it’s mainly concentrated on the character itself and the upper body.

Medium shot (MS)

This shot is usually used from the waist upwards. This shot also captures action and detail such as where the character is, and what they’re doing and the mood that they’re portraying through their body language and facial expressions. We can see the clear facial expression displayed through the example, and the body language that’s been used.

long shot (LS)

A long shot shows the whole body and shows the actions of what the character is doing. It also gives a understanding to the viewer about the type of place they’re at and allows us to infer what’s happening. The example I’ve given shows what the character is doing and this reflects on the surrounding that he is in.

extreme long shot (ELS)

An extreme long shot includes the full body of a character, and the whole surrounding that the character is in. Usually the surrounding is highlighted more than the character itself, implying the importance of the surrounding. In this scene shown above the character is portrayed at significantly small compared to the surroundings, this is because the surrounding is more of a significant factor than the character itself.
Establishing shot (ES)

The establishing shot is usually at the begging of a film, or at the start of a new scene. This shot shows a city with tall buildings and houses in the background, the effect that this has is that it gives us a understanding of where the action in the current scene is going to take place.
Camera Movements:
Panning shot

This camera movement technique involves moving the camera horizontally to the right or the left. A panning shot could be used when someone is riding a bike to capture their movement.  Moreover the subject is caught on camera; however the rest remains a blur in the background as show in the example.
Tilt shot

A tilt shot is a camera movement which involves the camera angle looking up or down at the object, instead of being at the same level. an upwards tilt shot could be used to signify superiority. On the other hand, a downward tilt shot could be used to observe action over a large area such as a football pitch as shown in the example.
Crane shot
On a crane, the camera movement would be more flexible, and it can move the camera higher than usual to get a larger filming area. Moreover it could be an advantage to the director because he/she could be able to get camera at angles that a man wouldn't be able to manage. Above is an example of a crane being used in order to get the camera to move to the place where it’s needed to be.
A zoom is technically not a camera move as it does not require the camera itself to move at all. Zooming means altering the focal length of the lens to give the illusion of moving closer to or further away from the action. The effect this has is that it gives emphasis towards a specific part of a character/object.
Point Of View (POV)

This is when the camera is at an angle that it looks like it’s from the persons view. The way this has an impact on the viewer is that it puts us in their shoes so we see exact same as what the character views. Furthermore, this is frequently used in thriller films because it creates tension and suspense to the viewer not knowing what would occur next.
Hand Held

Hand held camera movement is when the camera moves with the person. This creates more of a ‘home made’ or a dramatic feel to the shot. A film that uses a lot of hand held camera movement is REC. in this specific film it creates a sense of fear for the viewer and it feels like the viewer is sharing the experiencing with the character that’s holding the camera.
This in depth research of cinematography gave me essential and significant ideas that I would use towards making my own thriller trailer. Having the knowledge on the different camera shots sizes has helped me understand which shot sizes are suitable to use depending on the scene and what I will be portraying to the viewer. Moreover, I would use the camera angles depending on the different characters and the type of character they are. The knowledge I have now on the different type of camera movements would help me know what movement would suit a specific scene. Finally, for my thriller trailer I would consider using some close up shots to get a close up of their face and to portray emotion, as well as some long shots which would give the audience a more broad idea of the full body of the characters and what they are doing.